In this paper, how to compute the eigenfrequencies of the structures composed of a series of inclined cables is shown. The physics of an inclined cable can be complicated, so solving the differential equations even approximately is difficult. However, rather than solving the system of 4 first-order equations governing the dynamics of each cable, the governing equations are instead converted to a set of equations that the exterior matrix satisfies. Therefore, the exterior matrix method (EMM) is used without solving the original governing equations. Even though this produces a system of 6 first-order equations, the simple asymptotic techniques to find the first three terms of the perturbative solution can be used. The solutions can then be assembled to produce a 6 × 6 exterior matrix for a cable section. The matrices for each cable in the structure are multiplied together, along with the exterior matrices for each joint. The roots of the product give us the eigenfrequencies of the system.
The primary resonances of a quadratic nonlinear system under weak and strong external excitations are investigated with the emphasis on the comparison of different analytical approximate approaches. The forced vibration of snap-through mechanism is treated as a quadratic nonlinear oscillator. The Lindstedt-Poincaré method, the multiple-scale method, the averaging method, and the harmonic balance method are used to determine the amplitude-frequency response relationships of the steady-state responses. It is demonstrated that the zeroth-order harmonic components should be accounted in the application of the harmonic balance method. The analytical approximations are compared with the numerical integrations in terms of the frequency response curves and the phase portraits. Supported by the numerical results, the harmonic balance method predicts that the quadratic nonlinearity bends the frequency response curves to the left. If the excitation amplitude is a second-order small quantity of the bookkeeping parameter, the steady-state responses predicted by the second-order approximation of the LindstedtPoincaré method and the multiple-scale method agree qualitatively with the numerical results. It is demonstrated that the quadratic nonlinear system implies softening type nonlinearity for any quadratic nonlinear coefficients.
When an aircraft is hovering or doing a dive-hike flight at a fixed speed, a constant additional inertial force will be induced to the rotor system of the aero-engine, which can be called a constant maneuver load. Take hovering as an example. A Jeffcott rotor system with a biased rotor and several nonlinear elastic supports is modeled, and the vibration characteristics of the rotor system under a constant maneuver load are analytically studied. By using the multiple-scale method, the differential equations of the system are solved, and the bifurcation equations are obtained. Then, the bifurcations of the system are analyzed by using the singularity theory for the two variables. In the EG-plane, where E refers to the eccentricity of the rotor and G represents the constant maneuver load, two hysteresis point sets and one double limit point set are obtained. The bifurcation diagrams are also plotted. It is indicated that the resonance regions of the two variables will shift to the right when the aircraft is maneuvering. Furthermore, the movement along the horizontal direction is faster than that along the vertical direction. Thus, the different overlapping modes of the two resonance regions will bring about different bifurcation modes due to the nonlinear coupling effects. This result lays a theoretical foundation for controlling the stability of the aero-engine's rotor system under a maneuver load.
It becomes increasingly clear that non-uniform distribution of immiscible fluids in porous rock is particularly relevant to seismic wave dispersion. White proposed a patchy saturation model in 1975, in which spherical gas pockets were located at the center of a liquid saturated cube. For an extremely light and compressible inner gas, the physical properties can be approximated by a vacuum with White's model. The model successfully analyzes the dispersion phenomena of a P-wave velocity in gas-watersaturated rocks. In the case of liquid pocket saturation, e.g., an oil-pocket surrounded by a water saturated host matrix, the light fluid-pocket assumption is doubtful, and few works have been reported in White's framework. In this work, Poisson's ratio, the bulk modulus, and the effective density of a dual-liquid saturated medium are formulated for the heterogeneous porous rocks containing liquid-pockets. The analysis of the difference between the newly derived bulk modulus and that of White's model shows that the effects of liquid-pocket saturation do not disappear unless the porosity approaches zero. The inner pocket fluid can no longer be ignored. The improvements of the P-wave velocity predictions are illustrated with two examples taken from experiments, i.e., the P-wave velocity in the sandstone saturated by oil and brine and the P-wave velocity for heavy oils and stones at different temperatures.
A simulation model is presented for the creep process of the rotating disks under the radial pressure in the presence of body forces. The finite strain theory is applied. The material is described by the Norton-Bailey law generalized for true stresses and logarithmic strains. A mathematical model is formulated in the form of a set of four partial differential equations with respect to the radial coordinate and time. Necessary initial and boundary conditions are also given. To make the model complete, a numerical procedure is proposed. The given example shows the effectiveness of this procedure. The results show that the classical finite element method cannot be used here because both the geometry and the loading (body forces) change with the time in the creep process, and the finite elements need to be redefined at each time step.
In this paper, a non-Newtonian third-grade blood in coronary and femoral arteries is simulated analytically and numerically. The blood is considered as the thirdgrade non-Newtonian fluid under the periodic body acceleration motion and the pulsatile pressure gradient. The hybrid multi-step differential transformation method (Hybrid-MsDTM) and the Crank-Nicholson method (CNM) are used to solve the partial differential equation (PDE), and a good agreement between them is observed in the results. The effects of the some physical parameters such as the amplitude, the lead angle, and the body acceleration frequency on the velocity and shear stress profiles are considered. The results show that increasing the amplitude, Ag, and reducing the lead angle of body acceleration, φ, make higher velocity profiles on the center line of both arteries. Also, the maximum wall shear stress increases when Ag increases.
For the instability problem of density stratified shear flows in sea straits with variable cross sections, a new semielliptical instability region is found. Furthermore, the instability of the bounded shear layer is studied in two cases: (i) the density which takes two different constant values in two layers and (ii) the density which takes three different constant values in three layers. In both cases, the dispersion relation is found to be a quartic equation in the complex phase velocity. It is found that there are two unstable modes in a range of the wave numbers in the first case, whereas there is only one unstable mode in the second case.
An automated method to optimize the definition of the progress variables in the flamelet-based dimension reduction is proposed. The performance of these optimized progress variables in coupling the flamelets and flow solver is presented. In the proposed method, the progress variables are defined according to the first two principal components (PCs) from the principal component analysis (PCA) or kernel-density-weighted PCA (KEDPCA) of a set of flamelets. These flamelets can then be mapped to these new progress variables instead of the mixture fraction/conventional progress variables. Thus, a new chemistry look-up table is constructed. A priori validation of these optimized progress variables and the new chemistry table is implemented in a CH4/N2/air lift-off flame. The reconstruction of the lift-off flame shows that the optimized progress variables perform better than the conventional ones, especially in the high temperature area. The coefficient determinations (R2 statistics) show that the KEDPCA performs slightly better than the PCA except for some minor species. The main advantage of the KEDPCA is that it is less sensitive to the database. Meanwhile, the criteria for the optimization are proposed and discussed. The constraint that the progress variables should monotonically evolve from fresh gas to burnt gas is analyzed in detail.
Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is one of the most popular techniques for bio-particle manipulation in microfluidic systems. Traditional calculation of dielectrophoretic forces of single particle based on the approximation of equivalent dipole moment (EDM) cannot be directly applied on the dense particle interactions in an electrical field. The Maxwell stress tensor (MST) method is strictly accurate in the theory for dielectrophoretic forces of particle interaction, but the cumbersome and complicated numerical computation greatly limits its practical applications. A novel iterative dipole moment (IDM) method is presented in this work for calculating the dielectrophoretic forces of particle-particle interactions. The accuracy, convergence, and simplicity of the IDM are confirmed by a series of examples of two-particle interaction in a DC/AC electrical field. The results indicate that the IDM is able to calculate the DEP particle interaction forces in good agreement with the MST method. The IDM is a purely analytical operation and does not require complicated numerical computation for solving the differential equations of an electrical field while the particle is moving.
The two-dimensional flow of a viscous nanofluid is investigated. The flow is caused by a nonlinear stretching surface with the slip effects of the velocity, the temperature, and the concentration. The fluid is electrically conducted in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Appropriate transformations reduce the nonlinear partial differential system to an ordinary differential system. The convergent solutions of the governing nonlinear problems are computed. The results of the velocity, the temperature, and the concentration fields are calculated in series forms. The effects of the different parameters on the velocity, the temperature, and the concentration profiles are shown and analyzed. The skin friction coefficient, the Nusselt number, and the Sherwood number are also computed and investigated for different embedded parameters in the problem statements.