The problem of a transversely isotropic functionally graded material (FGM) plate welded with a circular inclusion is considered. The analysis starts with the general-ized England-Spencer plate theory for transversely isotropic FGM plates, which expresses a three-dimensional (3D) general solution in terms of four analytic functions. Several an-alytical solutions are then obtained for an infinite FGM plate welded with a circular inclusion and subjected to the loads at infinity. Three different cases are considered, i.e., a rigid circular inclusion fixed in the space, a rigid circular inclusion rotating about the x-, y-, and z-axes, and an elastic circular inclusion with different material constants from the plate itself. The static responses of the plate and/or the inclusion are investigated through numerical examples.
The crack tip fields are investigated for a cracked functionally graded material (FGM) plate by Reissner's linear plate theory with the consideration of the transverse shear deformation generated by bending. The elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio of the functionally graded plates are assumed to vary continuously through the coordinate y, according to a linear law and a constant, respectively. The governing equations, i.e., the 6th-order partial differential equations with variable coefficients, are derived in the polar coordinate system based on Reissner's plate theory. Furthermore, the generalized displacements are treated in a separation-of-variable form, and the higher-order crack tip fields of the cracked FGM plate are obtained by the eigen-expansion method. It is found that the analytic solutions degenerate to the corresponding fields of the isotropic homogeneous plate with Reissner's effect when the in-homogeneity parameter approaches zero.
There have already been several interface models for the analyses of thin interfacial layers in bonded materials. To distinguish their corresponding advantages or limitations, a comparative study is carried out, and a new constitutive-based interface model is proposed. Through numerical examinations, the limitations of typical models are clarified. It is found that the new interface model is an efficient and accurate model, by which both the traction and the displacement jumps across the modelled interface with the thickness of zero are allowed, and the stresses within the interfacial layer can also be analyzed.
The linear and nonlinear torsional free vibration analyses of functionally graded micro/nano-tubes (FGMTs) are analytically investigated based on the couple stress theory. The employed non-classical continuum theory contains one material length scale parameter, which can capture the small scale effect. The FGMT model accounts for the through-radius power-law variation of a two-constituent material. Hamilton's principle is used to develop the non-classical nonlinear governing equation. To study the effect of the boundary conditions, two types of end conditions, i.e., fixed-fixed and fixed-free, are considered. The derived boundary value governing equation is of the fourthorder, and is solved by the homotopy analysis method (HAM). This method is based on the Taylor series with an embedded parameter, and is capable of providing very good approximations by means of only a few terms, if the initial guess and the auxiliary linear operator are properly selected. The analytical expressions are developed for the linear and nonlinear natural frequencies, which can be conveniently used to investigate the effects of the dimensionless length scale parameter, the material gradient index, and the vibration amplitude on the natural frequencies of FGMTs.
The dynamic behavior of a bridge-erecting machine, carrying a moving mass suspended by a wire rope, is investigated. The bridge-erecting machine is modelled by a simply supported uniform beam, and a massless equivalent “spring-damper” system with an effective spring constant and an effective damping coefficient is used to model the moving mass suspended by the wire rope. The suddenly applied load is represented by a unitary Dirac Delta function. With the expansion method, a simple closed-form solution for the equation of motion with the replaced spring-damper-mass system is formulated. The characters of the rope are included in the derivation of the differential equation of motion for the system. The numerical examples show that the effects of the damping coefficient and the spring constant of the rope on the deflection have significant variations with the loading frequency. The effects of the damping coefficient and the spring constant under different beam lengths are also examined. The obtained results validate the presented approach, and provide significant references in the design process of bridgeerecting machines.
The dynamical behavior of two tethered rigid spheres in a supersonic flow is numerically investigated. The tethered lengths and radius ratios of the two spheres are different. The two spheres, which are centroid axially aligned initially, are held stationary first, then released, and subsequently let fly freely in a supersonic flow. The mean qualities of the system and the qualities of the bigger sphere are considered and compared with the situations without the tether. In the separation process, six types of motion caused by the spheres, tether, and fluid interaction are found. The results show that the mean x-velocity of the system changes in a different manner for different radius ratios, and the x-velocity of the bigger sphere is uniformly reduced but through different mechanisms.
The Cattaneo-Christov heat flux in the two-dimensional (2D) flow of a third-grade fluid towards an exponentially stretching sheet is investigated. The energy equation is considered through thermal relaxation. Similarity transformations are accounted to obtain the ordinary differential systems. The converted non-dimensional equations are solved for the series solutions. The convergence analysis of the computed solutions is reported. The graphical results of the velocity and temperature profiles are plotted and elaborated in detail. The results show that the thermal relaxation enhances the temper-ature gradient while reduces the temperature profile.
The time periodic electroosmotic flow of an incompressible micropolar fluid between two infinitely extended microparallel plates is studied. The analytical solutions of the velocity and microrotation are derived under the Debye-H¨uckel approximation. The effects of the related dimensionless parameters, e.g., the micropolar parameter, the frequency, the electrokinetic width, and the wall zeta potential ratio of the upper plate to the lower plate, on the electroosmotic velocity and microrotation are investigated. The results show that the amplitudes of the velocity and the volume flow rate will drop to zero when the micropolar parameter increases from 0 to 1. The effects of the electrokinetic width and the frequency on the velocity of the micropolar fluid are similar to those of the Newtonian fluid. However, the dependence of the microrotation on the related parameters mentioned above is complex. In order to describe these effects clearly, the dimensionless microrotation strength and the penetration depth of the microrotation are defined, which are used to explain the variation of the microrotation. In addition, the effects of various parameters on the dimensionless stress tensor at the walls are studied.
A theoretical model for the translocation process of biomacromolecule is de-veloped based on the self-consistent field theory (SCFT), where the biomacromolecule is regarded as a self-avoiding polymer chain actuated by the external potential. In this the-oretical model, the external potential, the Coulomb electrostatic potential of the charged ions (the electrolyte effect), and the attractive interaction between the polymer and the nanopore (the excluded volume effect) are all considered, which have effects on the free energy landscape and conformation entropy during the translocation stage. The result shows that the entropy barrier of the polymer in the solution with high valence electrolyte is much larger than that with low valence electrolyte under the same condition, leading to that the translocation time of the DNA molecules in the solution increases when the valence electrolyte increases. In addition, the attractive interaction between the polymer and the nanopore increases the free energy of the polymer, which means that the prob-ability of the translocation through the nanopore increases. The average translocation time decreases when the excluded volume effect parameter increases. The electrolyte ef-fect can prolong the average translocation time. The simulation results agree well with the available experimental results.
The vibration of the layered cylindrical shells filled with a quiescent, in-compressible, and inviscid fluid is analyzed. The governing equations of the cylindrical shells are derived by Love's approximation. The solutions of the displacement functions are assumed in a separable form to obtain a system of coupled differential equations in terms of the displacement functions. The displacement functions are approximated by Bickley-type splines. A generalized eigenvalue problem is obtained and solved numerically for the frequency parameter and an associated eigenvector of the spline coefficients. Two layered shells with three different types of materials under clamped-clamped (C-C) and simply supported (S-S) boundary conditions are considered. The variations of the fre-quency parameter with respect to the relative layer thickness, the length-to-radius ratio, the length-to-thickness ratio, and the circumferential node number are analyzed.