It is well-known that chaotic dynamic systems, e.g., three-body system and turbulent flow, have sensitive dependence on the initial conditions (SDIC). Unfortunately, numerical noises, i.e., truncation error and round-off error, always exist in practice. Thus, due to the SDIC, the long-term accurate prediction of chaotic dynamic systems is practically impossible. In this paper, a new strategy for chaotic dynamic systems, i.e., the clean numerical simulation (CNS), is briefly described, and applied to a few Hamiltonian chaotic systems. With negligible numerical noises, the CNS can provide convergent (reliable) chaotic trajectories in a long enough interval of time. This is very important for Hamiltonian systems, and thus should have many applications in various fields. It is found that the traditional numerical methods in double precision cannot give not only reliable trajectories but also reliable Fourier power spectra and autocorrelation functions (ACFs). In addition, even the statistic properties of chaotic systems cannot be correctly obtained by means of traditional numerical algorithms in double precision, as long as these statistics are time-dependent. The CNS results strongly suggest that one had better be very careful on the direct numerical simulation (DNS) results of statistically unsteady turbulent flows, although DNS results often agree well with experimental data when the turbulent flow is in a statistical stationary state.
A high-precision and space-time fully decoupled numerical method is developed for a class of nonlinear initial boundary value problems. It is established based on a proposed Coiflet-based approximation scheme with an adjustable high order for the functions over a bounded interval, which allows the expansion coefficients to be explicitly expressed by the function values at a series of single points. When the solution method is used, the nonlinear initial boundary value problems are first spatially discretized into a series of nonlinear initial value problems by combining the proposed wavelet approximation and the conventional Galerkin method, and a novel high-order step-by-step time integrating approach is then developed for the resulting nonlinear initial value problems with the same function approximation scheme based on the wavelet theory. The solution method is shown to have the Nth-order accuracy, as long as the Coiflet with[0, 3N-1] compact support is adopted, where N can be any positive even number. Typical examples in mechanics are considered to justify the accuracy and efficiency of the method.
A fully coupling model for the diffusion induced finite elastoplastic bending of bilayer electrodes in lithium-ion batteries is proposed. The effect of the mechanical stress on the lithium diffusion is accounted for by the mechanical part of the chemical potential derived from the Gibbs free energy along with the logarithmic stress and strain. Eight dimensionless parameters, governing the stress-assisted diffusion and the diffusion induced elastoplastic bending, are identified. It is found that the finite plasticity starting from the interface of the bilayer increases the chemical potential gradient and thereby facilitates the lithium diffusion. The full plastic flow makes the abnormal lithium concentration distribution possible, i.e., the concentration at the lithium inlet can be lower than the concentration at the interface (downstream). The increase in the thickness of the active layer during charging is much larger than the eigen-stretch due to lithiation, and this excess thickening is found to be caused by the lithiation induced plastic yield.
The free thermal vibration of functionally graded material (FGM) cylindrical shells containing porosities is investigated. Both even distribution and uneven distribution are taken into account. In addition, three thermal load types, i.e., uniform temperature rise (UTR), nonlinear temperature rise (NLTR), and linear temperature rise (LTR), are researched to explore their effects on the vibration characteristics of porous FGM cylindrical shells. A modified power-law formulation is used to describe the material properties of FGM shells in the thickness direction. Love's shell theory is used to formulate the straindisplacement equations, and the Rayleigh-Ritz method is utilized to calculate the natural frequencies of the system. The results show that the natural frequencies are affected by the porosity volume fraction, constituent volume fraction, and thermal load. Moreover, the natural frequencies obtained from the LTR have insignificant differences compared with those from the NLTR. Due to the calculation complexity of the NLTR, we propose that it is reasonable to replace it by its linear counterpart for the analysis of thin porous FGM cylindrical shells. The present results are verified in comparison with the published ones in the literature.
A scale-similarity model of a two-point two-time Lagrangian velocity correlation (LVC) was originally developed for the relative dispersion of tracer particles in isotropic turbulent flows (HE, G. W., JIN, G. D., and ZHAO, X. Scale-similarity model for Lagrangian velocity correlations in isotropic and stationary turbulence. Physical Review E, 80, 066313 (2009)). The model can be expressed as a two-point Eulerian space correlation and the dispersion velocity V. The dispersion velocity denotes the rate at which one moving particle departs from another fixed particle. This paper numerically validates the robustness of the scale-similarity model at high Taylor micro-scale Reynolds numbers up to 373, which are much higher than the original values (Rλ=66, 102). The effect of the Reynolds number on the dispersion velocity in the scale-similarity model is carefully investigated. The results show that the scale-similarity model is more accurate at higher Reynolds numbers because the two-point Lagrangian velocity correlations with different initial spatial separations collapse into a universal form compared with a combination of the initial separation and the temporal separation via the dispersion velocity. Moreover, the dispersion velocity V normalized by the Kolmogorov velocity Vη ≡ η/τη in which η and τη are the Kolmogorov space and time scales, respectively, scales with the Reynolds number Rλ as V/Vη ∝ Rλ1.39 obtained from the numerical data.
The second-grade fluid flow due to a rotating porous stretchable disk is modeled and analyzed. A porous medium is characterized by the Darcy relation. The heat and mass transport are characterized through Cattaneo-Christov double diffusions. The thermal and solutal stratifications at the surface are also accounted. The relevant nonlinear ordinary differential systems after using appropriate transformations are solved for the solutions with the homotopy analysis method (HAM). The effects of various involved variables on the temperature, velocity, concentration, skin friction, mass transfer rate, and heat transfer rate are discussed through graphs. From the obtained results, decreasing tendencies for the radial, axial, and tangential velocities are observed. Temperature is a decreasing function of the Reynolds number, thermal relaxation parameter, and Prandtl number. Moreover, the mass diffusivity decreases with the Schmidt number.
A new physical structure of vortical flow, i.e., tubular limiting stream surface (TLSS), is reported. It is defined as a general mathematical structure for the physical flow field in the neighborhood of a singularity, and has a close relationship with limit cycles. The TLSS is a tornado-like structure, which separates a vortex into two regions, i.e., the inner region near the vortex axis and the outer region further away from the vortex axis. The flow particles in these two regions can approach to (or leave) the TLSS, but never could reach it.
The hypersonic boundary-layer receptivity to slow acoustic waves is investigated for the Mach 6 flow over a 5-degree half-angle blunt cone with the nose radius of 5.08 mm. The plane acoustic wave interacts with the bow shock, and generates all types of disturbances behind the shock, which may take various routes to generate the boundarylayer unstable mode. In this paper, two routes of receptivity are investigated in detail. One is through the disturbance in the entropy layer. The other is through the slow acoustic wave transmitted downstream the bow shock, which can excite the boundary-layer mode due to the synchronization mechanism. The results show that, for a low frequency slow acoustic wave, the latter route plays a leading role. The entropy-layer instability wave is able to excite the first mode near the neutral point, but its receptivity efficiency is much lower.
A viscoelastic beam in a two-dimensional space is considered with nonlinear tension. A boundary feedback is applied at the right boundary of the beam to suppress the undesirable vibration. The well-posedness of the problem is established. With the multiplier method, a uniform decay result is proven.
A global seventh-order dissipative compact finite-difference scheme is optimized in terms of time stability. The dissipative parameters appearing in the boundary closures are assumed to be different, resulting in an optimization problem with several parameters determined by applying a generic algorithm. The optimized schemes are analyzed carefully from the aspects of the eigenvalue distribution, the ε-pseudospectra, the short time behavior, and the Fourier analysis. Numerical experiments for the Euler equations are used to show the effectiveness of the final recommended scheme.