The weakly nonlinear stability of the triple diffusive convection in a Maxwell fluid saturated porous layer is investigated. In some cases, disconnected oscillatory neutral curves are found to exist, indicating that three critical thermal Darcy-Rayleigh numbers are required to specify the linear instability criteria. However, another distinguishing feature predicted from that of Newtonian fluids is the impossibility of quasi-periodic bifurcation from the rest state. Besides, the co-dimensional two bifurcation points are located in the Darcy-Prandtl number and the stress relaxation parameter plane. It is observed that the value of the stress relaxation parameter defining the crossover between stationary and oscillatory bifurcations decreases when the Darcy-Prandtl number increases. A cubic Landau equation is derived based on the weakly nonlinear stability analysis. It is found that the bifurcating oscillatory solution is either supercritical or subcritical, depending on the choice of the physical parameters. Heat and mass transfers are estimated in terms of time and area-averaged Nusselt numbers.
A double perturbation strategy is presented to solve the asymptotic solutions of a Johnson-Segalman (J-S) fluid through a slowly varying pipe. First, a small parameter of the slowly varying angle is taken as the small perturbation parameter, and then the second-order asymptotic solution of the flow of a Newtonian fluid through a slowly varying pipe is obtained in the first perturbation strategy. Second, the viscoelastic parameter is selected as the small perturbation parameter in the second perturbation strategy to solve the asymptotic solution of the flow of a J-S fluid through a slowly varying pipe. Finally, the parameter effects, including the axial distance, the slowly varying angle, and the Reynolds number, on the velocity distributions are analyzed. The results show that the increases in both the axial distance and the slowly varying angle make the axial velocity slow down. However, the radial velocity increases with the slowly varying angle, and decreases with the axial distance. There are two special positions in the distribution curves of the axial velocity and the radial velocity with different Reynolds numbers, and there are different trends on both sides of the special positions. The double perturbation strategy is applicable to such problems with the flow of a non-Newtonian fluid through a slowly varying pipe.
A unified mathematical model is established to simulate the nonlinear unsteady percolation of shale gas with the consideration of the nonlinear multi-scale effects such as slippage, diffusion, and desorption. The continuous inhomogeneous models of equivalent porosity and permeability are proposed for the whole shale gas reservoir including the hydraulic fracture, the micro-fracture, and the matrix regions. The corresponding semi-analytical method is developed by transforming the nonlinear partial differential governing equation into the integral equation and the numerical discretization. The nonlinear multi-scale effects of slippage and diffusion and the pressure dependent effect of desorption on the shale gas production are investigated.
An improved constant volume cycle (CVC) model is developed to analyze the nozzle effects on the thrust and specific impulse of pulse detonation rocket engine (PDRE). Theoretically, this model shows that the thrust coefficient/specific impulse of PDRE is a function of the nozzle contraction/expansion ratio and the operating frequency. The relationship between the nozzle contraction ratio and the operation frequency is obtained by introducing the duty ratio, by which the key problem in the theoretical design can be solved. Therefore, the performance of PDRE can be accessed to guide the preliminary shape design of nozzle conveniently and quickly. The higher the operating frequency of PDRE is, the smaller the nozzle contraction ratio should be. Besides, the lower the ambient pressure is, the larger the expansion ratio of the nozzle should be. When the ambient pressure is 1.013×105 Pa, the optimal expansion ratio will be less than 2.26. When the ambient pressure is reduced to vacuum, the extremum of the optimal thrust coefficient is 2.236 9, and the extremum of the specific impulse is 321.01 s. The results of the improved model are verified by numerical simulation.
The dispersion behavior of the shear horizontal (SH) waves in the coupled structure consisting of a piezomagnetic substrate and an orthorhombic piezoelectric layer is investigated with different cut orientations. The surface of the piezoelectric layer is mechanically free, electrically shorted, or open, while the surface of the piezomagnetic substrate is mechanically free, magnetically open, or shorted. The dispersion relations are derived for four electromagnetic boundary conditions. The dispersion characteristics are graphically illustrated for the layered structure with the PMN-PT layer perfectly bonded on the CoFe2O4 substrate. The effects of the PMN-PT cut orientations, the electromagnetic boundary conditions, and the thickness ratio of the layer to the substrate on the dispersion behavior are analyzed and discussed in detail. The results show that, (i) the effect of the cut orientation on the dispersion curves is very obvious, (ii) the electrical boundary conditions of the PMN-PT layer dominate the propagation feature of the SH waves, and (iii) the thickness ratio has a significant effect on the phase velocity when the wave number is small. The results of the present paper can provide valuable theoretical references to the applications of piezoelectric/piezomagnectic structure in acoustic wave devices.
The bending and free vibration of a rotating sandwich cylindrical shell are analyzed with the consideration of the nanocomposite core and piezoelectric layers subjected to thermal and magnetic fields by use of the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) of shells. The governing equations of motion and the corresponding boundary conditions are established through the variational method and the Maxwell equation. The closed-form solutions of the rotating sandwich cylindrical shell are obtained. The effects of geometrical parameters, volume fractions of carbon nanotubes, applied voltages on the inner and outer piezoelectric layers, and magnetic and thermal fields on the natural frequency, critical angular velocity, and deflection of the sandwich cylindrical shell are investigated. The critical angular velocity of the nanocomposite sandwich cylindrical shell is obtained. The results show that the mechanical properties, e.g., Young's modulus and thermal expansion coefficient, for the carbon nanotube and matrix are functions of temperature, and the magnitude of the critical angular velocity can be adjusted by changing the applied voltage.
The effects of an external store on the flutter characteristics of a composite laminated plate in a supersonic flow are investigated. The Dirac function is used to formulate the interaction between the plate and the store. The first-order piston theory is used to describe the aerodynamic load. The governing equation of the composite laminated plate with an external store is established based on the Hamilton principle. The mode shapes are constructed by the admissible functions which are a set of characteristic orthogonal polynomials generated directly by the Gram-Schmidt process, and the boundary constraint is modeled as the artificial springs. The frequency and mode shapes of the plate under different boundaries are determined by the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The validity of the proposed approach is confirmed by comparing the results with those obtained from the finite element method (FEM). The effects of the mounting position, the center of gravity position and the mounting points spacing of the external store on the flutter boundary are discussed for both the simply supported and cantilever plates, respectively, which correspond to the two installation sites of the external store, i.e., the belly and wings of the aircraft.
To reveal some dynamic properties of the deploying process for the solar power satellite via an arbitrarily large phased array (SPS-ALPHA) solar receiver, the symplectic Runge-Kutta method is used to simulate the simplified model with the consideration of the Rayleigh damping effect. The system containing the Rayleigh damping can be separated and transformed into the equivalent nondamping system formally to insure the application condition of the symplectic Runge-Kutta method First, the Lagrange equation with the Rayleigh damping governing the motion of the system is derived via the variational principle. Then, with some reasonable assumptions on the relations among the damping, mass, and stiffness matrices, the Rayleigh damping system is equivalently converted into the nondamping system formally, so that the symplectic Runge-Kutta method can be used to simulate the deploying process for the solar receiver. Finally, some numerical results of the symplectic Runge-Kutta method for the dynamic properties of the solar receiver are reported. The numerical results show that the proposed simplified model is valid for the deploying process for the SPS-ALPHA solar receiver, and the symplectic Runge-Kutta method can preserve the displacement constraints of the system well with excellent long-time numerical stability.
A sampling approximation for a function defined on a bounded interval is proposed by combining the Coiflet-type wavelet expansion and the boundary extension technique. Based on such a wavelet approximation scheme, a Galerkin procedure is developed for the spatial discretization of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations, and a system of ordinary differential equations for the time dependent unknowns is obtained. Then, the classical fourth-order explicit Runge-Kutta method is used to solve this semi-discretization system. To justify the present method, several widely considered problems are solved as the test examples, and the results demonstrate that the proposed wavelet algorithm has much better accuracy and a faster convergence rate in space than many existing numerical methods.
This paper aims to present a new streamline diffusion method with low order rectangular Bernardi-Raugel elements to solve the generalized Oseen equations. With the help of the Bramble-Hilbert lemma, the optimal errors of the velocity and pressure are estimated, which are independent of the considered parameter ε. With an interpolation postprocessing approach, the superconvergent error of the pressure is obtained. Finally, a numerical experiment is carried out to confirm the theoretical results.