This paper focuses on the buckling behaviors of a micro-scaled bi-directional functionally graded (FG) beam with a rectangular cross-section, which is now widely used in fabricating components of micro-nano-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) with a wide range of aspect ratios. Based on the modified couple stress theory and the principle of minimum potential energy, the governing equations and boundary conditions for a micro-structure-dependent beam theory are derived. The present beam theory incorporates different kinds of higher-order shear assumptions as well as the two familiar beam theories, namely, the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories. A numerical solution procedure, based on a generalized differential quadrature method (GDQM), is used to calculate the results of the bi-directional FG beams. The effects of the two exponential FG indexes, the higher-order shear deformations, the length scale parameter, the geometric dimensions, and the different boundary conditions on the critical buckling loads are studied in detail, by assuming that Young's modulus obeys an exponential distribution function in both length and thickness directions. To reach the desired critical buckling load, the appropriate exponential FG indexes and geometric shape of micro-beams can be designed according to the proposed theory.

A new continuum model is developed to study the influence of surface stress on the behaviors of piezoelectric nanobeams. Different from existing piezoelectric surface models which only consider the surface properties, the proposed model takes surfaceinduced initial fields into consideration. Due to the fact that the surface-induced initial fields are totally different under various boundary conditions, two kinds of beams, the doubly-clamped beam and the cantilever beam, are analyzed. Furthermore, boundary conditions can affect not only the initial state of the piezoelectric nanobeam but also the forms of the governing equations. Based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the nonlinear Green-Lagrangian strain-displacement relationship is applied. In addition, the surface area change is also considered in the proposed model. The governing equations of the doubly-clamped and cantilever beams are derived by the energy variation principle. Compared with existing Young-Laplace models, the proposed model for the doubly-clamped beam is similar to the Young-Laplace models. However, the governing equation of the cantilever beam derived by the proposed model is very different from that derived by the Young-Laplace models. The behaviors of piezoelectric nanobeams predicted by these two models also have significant discrepancies, which is owing to the surface-induced initial fields in the bulk beam.

The tensile response, the low cycle fatigue (LCF) resistance, and the creep behavior of an aluminum (Al) cast alloy are studied at ambient and elevated temperatures. A non-contact real-time optical extensometer based on the digital image correlation (DIC) is developed to achieve strain measurements without damage to the specimen. The optical extensometer is validated and used to monitor dynamic strains during the mechanical experiments. Results show that Young's modulus of the cast alloy decreases with the increasing temperature, and the percentage elongation to fracture at 100 ℃ is the lowest over the temperature range evaluated from 25 ℃ to 300 ℃. In the LCF test, the fatigue strength coefficient decreases, whereas the fatigue strength exponent increases with the rising temperature. The fatigue ductility coefficient and exponent reach maximum values at 100 ℃. As expected, the resistance to creep decreases with the increasing temperature and changes from 200 ℃ to 300 ℃.

This paper is devoted to analytical and numerical studies of global buckling of a sandwich circular plate. The mechanical properties of the plate core vary along its thickness, remaining constant in the facings. The middle surface of the plate is its symmetrical plane. The mathematical model of the plate is presented. The field of displacements is formulated using the proposed nonlinear hypothesis that generalizes the classical hypotheses. The equations of equilibrium are formulated based on the principle of stationary total potential energy. The proposed mathematical model of the displacements considers the shear effect. The numerical model of the plate is also formulated with a view to verify the analytical one. Numerical calculations are carried out for the chosen family of plates. The values of the critical load obtained by the analytical and numerical methods are compared. The effects of the material properties of the core and the change of the plate radius on the critical load intensity are presented.

This paper is concerned with the flow of two immiscible fluids through a porous horizontal channel. The fluid in the upper region is the micropolar fluid/the Eringen fluid, and the fluid in the lower region is the Newtonian viscous fluid. The flow is driven by a constant pressure gradient. The presence of micropolar fluids introduces additional rotational parameters. Also, the porous material considered in both regions has two different permeabilities. A direct method is used to obtain the analytical solution of the concerned problem. In the present problem, the effects of the couple stress, the micropolarity parameter, the viscosity ratio, and the permeability on the velocity profile and the microrotational velocity are discussed. It is found that all the physical parameters play an important role in controlling the translational velocity profile and the microrotational velocity. In addition, numerical values of the different flow parameters are computed. The effects of the different flow parameters on the flow rate and the wall shear stress are also discussed graphically.

The present paper proposes a Lagrangian criterion of unsteady flow separation for two-dimensional periodic flows based on the principle of weighted averaging zero skin-friction given by Haller (HALLER, G. Exact theory of unsteady separation for two-dimensional flows. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 512, 257-311 (2004)). By analyzing the distribution of the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) along the no-slip wall, it can be found that the periodic separation takes place at the point of the zero FTLE. This new criterion is verified with an analytical solution of the separation bubble and a numerical simulation of lid-driven cavity flows.

Turbulent gas-particle flows are studied by a kinetic description using a probability density function (PDF). Unlike other investigators deriving the particle Reynolds stress equations using the PDF equations, the particle PDF transport equations are directly solved either using a finite-difference method for two-dimensional (2D) problems or using a Monte-Carlo (MC) method for three-dimensional (3D) problems. The proposed differential stress model together with the PDF (DSM-PDF) is used to simulate turbulent swirling gas-particle flows. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results and the second-order moment (SOM) two-phase modeling results. All of these simulation results are in agreement with the experimental results, implying that the PDF approach validates the SOM two-phase turbulence modeling. The PDF model with the SOM-MC method is used to simulate evaporating gas-droplet flows, and the simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

This paper presents a strategy for computation of super-convergent solutions of multi-dimensional problems in the finite element method (FEM) by recursive application of the one-dimensional (1D) element energy projection (EEP) technique. The main idea is to conceptually treat multi-dimensional problems as generalized 1D problems, based on which the concepts of generalized 1D FEM and its consequent EEP formulae have been developed in a unified manner. Equipped with these concepts, multi-dimensional problems can be recursively discretized in one dimension at each step, until a fully discretized standard finite element (FE) model is reached. This conceptual dimension-bydimension (D-by-D) discretization procedure is entirely equivalent to a full FE discretization. As a reverse D-by-D recovery procedure, by using the unified EEP formulae together with proper extraction of the generalized nodal solutions, super-convergent displacements and first derivatives for two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) problems can be obtained over the domain. Numerical examples of 3D Poisson's equation and elasticity problem are given to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

The high temperature gas occurs behind shock or near the wall surface of vehicle in the hypersonic flight. As the temperature exceeds 2 000 K, 4 000 K, respectively, O2 and N2 molecules are successively dissociated. Because of variable components at different temperatures and pressures, the dissociated air is no longer a perfect gas. In this paper, a new method is developed to calculate accurate thermal physical parameters with the dissociation degree providing the thermochemical equilibrium procedure. Based on the dissociation degree, it is concluded that few numbers of equations and the solutions are easily obtained. In addition, a set of formulas relating the parameter to the dissociation degree are set up. The thermodynamic properties of dissociated air containing four-species, O2 molecule and N2 molecule, O atom and N atom, are studied with the new method, and the results are consistent with those with the traditional equilibrium constant method. It is shown that this method is reliable for solving thermal physical parameters easily and directly.