This research focuses on the Cattaneo-Christov theory of heat and mass flux for a three-dimensional Maxwell liquid towards a moving surface. An incompressible laminar flow with variable thermal conductivity is considered. The flow generation is due to the bidirectional stretching of sheet. The combined phenomenon of heat and mass transport is accounted. The Cattaneo-Christov model of heat and mass diffusion is used to develop the expressions of energy and mass species. The first-order chemical reaction term in the mass species equation is considered. The boundary layer assumptions lead to the governing mathematical model. The homotopic simulation is adopted to visualize the results of the dimensionless flow equations. The graphs of velocities, temperature, and concentration show the effects of different arising parameters. A numerical benchmark is presented to visualize the convergent values of the computed results. The results show that the concentration and temperature fields are decayed for the Cattaneo-Christov theory of heat and mass diffusion.
A direct numerical simulation (DNS) on an oblique shock wave with an incident angle of 33.2° impinging on a Mach 2.25 supersonic turbulent boundary layer is performed. The numerical results are confirmed to be of high accuracy by comparison with the reference data. Particular efforts have been made on the investigation of the near-wall behaviors in the interaction region, where the pressure gradient is so significant that a certain separation zone emerges. It is found that, the traditional linear and logarithmic laws, which describe the mean-velocity profiles in the viscous and meso sublayers, respectively, cease to be valid in the neighborhood of the interaction region, and two new laws of the wall are proposed by elevating the pressure gradient to the leading order. The new laws are inspired by the analysis on the incompressible separation flows, while the compressibility is additionally taken into account. It is verified by the DNS results that the new laws are adequate to reproduce the mean-velocity profiles both inside and outside the interaction region. Moreover, the normalization adopted in the new laws is able to regularize the Reynolds stress into an almost universal distribution even with a salient adverse pressure gradient (APG).
The sensitivity of turbulence-development to inflow turbulent statistics is investigated in microscale urban atmospheric environment flows. Large-eddy simulations (LESs) are carried out, in which the inflow error is brought in by transforming a fully developed turbulent field according to the Reynolds stress or energy spectra. A theoretical analysis is performed by neglecting the diffusion term in the budget equations of the turbulent kinetic energy. The results show that, (i) the error caused by the Reynolds stress decays until the fully developed level is achieved, and (ii) the error caused by the characteristic length scale increases immediately and then decreases. The streamwise changing rate of the inflow error weakens when the vertical coordinate increases. Further testing of the effects of the inflow inner- and outer-layer data shows that, the inflow innerlayer data dominate the near field, and the inflow outer-layer data dominate the far field.
The Green function method (GFM) is utilized to analyze the in-plane forced vibration of curved pipe conveying fluid, where the randomicity and distribution of the external excitation and the added mass and damping ratio are considered. The Laplace transform is used, and the Green functions with various boundary conditions are obtained subsequently. Numerical calculations are performed to validate the present solutions, and the effects of some key parameters on both tangential and radial displacements are further investigated. The forced vibration problems with linear and nonlinear motion constraints are also discussed briefly. The method can be radiated to study other forms of forced vibration problems related with pipes or more extensive issues.
The determination of the critical transition Reynolds number is of practical importance for some engineering problems. However, it is not available with the current theoretical method, and has to rely on experiments. For supersonic/hypersonic boundary layer flows, the experimental method for determination is not feasible either. Therefore, in this paper, a numerical method for the determination of the critical transition Reynolds number for an incompressible plane channel flow is proposed. It is basically aimed to test the feasibility of the method. The proposed method is extended to determine the critical Reynolds number of the supersonic/hypersonic boundary layer flow in the subsequent papers.
The mathematical modeling of a rotating tapered Timoshenko beam with preset and pre-twist angles is constructed. The partial differential equations governing the six degrees, i.e., three displacements in the axial, flapwise, and edgewise directions and three cross-sectional angles of torsion, flapwise bending, and edgewise bending, are obtained by the Euler angle descriptions. The power series method is then used to investigate the natural frequencies and the corresponding complex mode functions. It is found that all the natural frequencies are increased by the centrifugal stiffening except the twist frequency, which is slightly decreased. The tapering ratio increases the first transverse, torsional, and axial frequencies, while decreases the second transverse frequency. Because of the pre-twist, all the directions are gyroscopically coupled with the phase differences among the six degrees.
The semi-analytical solutions to Fredlund and Hasan's one-dimensional (1D) consolidation for unsaturated soils with a semi-permeable drainage boundary are presented. Two variables are introduced to transform the two coupled governing equations of pore-water and pore-air pressures into an equivalent set of partial differential equations (PDFs), which are easily solved by the Laplace transform method. Then, the pore-water pressure, pore-air pressure, and soil settlement are obtained in the Laplace domain. The Crump method is adopted to perform the inverse Laplace transform in order to obtain the semi-analytical solutions in the time domain. It is shown that the proposed solutions are more applicable to various types of boundary conditions and agree well with the existing solutions from the literature. Several numerical examples are provided to investigate the consolidation behavior of an unsaturated single-layer soil with single, double, mixed, and semi-permeable drainage boundaries. The changes in the pore-air and pore-water pressures and the soil settlement with the time factor at different values of the semi-permeable drainage boundary parameters are illustrated. In addition, parametric studies are conducted on the pore-air and pore-water pressures at different ratios (the air permeability coefficient to the water permeability coefficient) and depths.
Based on von Karman's plate theory, the axisymmetric thermal buckling and post-buckling of the functionally graded material (FGM) circular plates with inplane elastic restraints under transversely non-uniform temperature rise are studied. The properties of the FGM media are varied through the thickness based on a simple power law. The governing equations are numerically solved by a shooting method. The results of the critical buckling temperature, post-buckling equilibrium paths, and configurations for the in-plane elastically restrained plates are presented. The effects of the in-plane elastic restraints, material property gradient, and temperature variation on the responses of thermal buckling and post-buckling are examined in detail.
A conventional complex variable boundary integral equation (CVBIE) in plane elasticity is provided. After using the Somigliana identity between a particular fundamental stress field and a physical stress field, an additional integral equality is obtained. By adding both sides of this integral equality to both sides of the conventional CVBIE, the amended boundary integral equation (BIE) is obtained. The method based on the discretization of the amended BIE is called the amended influence matrix method. With this method, for the Neumann boundary value problem (BVP) of an interior region, a unique solution for the displacement can be obtained. Several numerical examples are provided to prove the efficiency of the suggested method.
The transports of the dynamic biochemical signals in the non-reversing pulsatile flows in the mixing microchannel of a Y-shaped microfluidic device are analyzed. The results show that the mixing micro-channel acts as a low-pass filter, and the biochemical signals are nonlinearly modulated by the pulsatile flows, which depend on the biochemical signal frequency, the flow signal frequency, and the biochemical signal transporting distance. It is concluded that, the transfer characteristics of the dynamic biochemical signals, which are transported in the time-varying flows, should be carefully considered for better loading biochemical signals on the cells cultured on the bottom of the microfluidic channel.