The common defects of the Roe scheme are the non-physical expansion shock and shock instability. By removing the momentum interpolation mechanism (MIM), an improved method with several advantages has been presented to suppress the shock instability. However, it cannot prevent the expansion shock and is incompatible with the traditional curing method for expansion shock. To solve the problem, the traditional curing mechanism is analyzed. Effectiveness of the traditional curing method is discussed, and several defects are identified, one of which leads to incompatibility between curing shock instability and expansion shock. Consequently, an improved Roe scheme is proposed, which is with low computational costs, concise, easy to implement, and robust. More importantly, the proposed scheme can simultaneously solve the problem of shock instability and expansion shock without additional costs.

A numerical study is reported for two-dimensional flow of an incompressible Powell-Eyring fluid by stretching the surface with the Cattaneo-Christov model of heat diffusion. Impacts of heat generation/absorption and destructive/generative chemical reactions are considered. Use of proper variables leads to a system of non-linear dimensionless expressions. Velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are achieved through a finite difference based algorithm with a successive over-relaxation (SOR) method. Emerging dimensionless quantities are described with graphs and tables. The temperature and concentration profiles decay due to enhancement in fluid parameters and Deborah numbers.

Interaction between turbulence and particles is investigated in a channel flow. The fluid motion is calculated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) with a lattice Boltzmann (LB) method, and particles are tracked in a Lagrangian framework through the action of force imposed by the fluid. The particle diameter is smaller than the Kolmogorov length scale, and the point force is used to represent the feedback force of particles on the turbulence. The effects of particles on the turbulence and skin friction coefficient are examined with different particle inertias and mass loadings. Inertial particles suppress intensities of the spanwise and wall-normal components of velocity, and the Reynolds shear stress. It is also found that, relative to the reference particle-free flow, the overall mean skin-friction coefficient is reduced by particles. Changes of near wall turbulent structures such as longer and more regular streamwise low-speed streaks and less ejections and sweeps are the manifestation of drag reduction.

The computational cost of numerical methods in microscopic-scales such as molecular dynamics (MD) is a deterrent factor that limits simulations with a large number of particles. Hence, it is desirable to decrease the computational cost and run time of simulations, especially for problems with a symmetrical domain. However, in microscopic-scales, implementation of symmetric boundary conditions is not straightforward. Previously, the present authors have successfully used a symmetry boundary condition to solve molecular flows in constant-area channels. The results obtained with this approach agree well with the benchmark cases. Therefore, it has provided us with a sound ground to further explore feasibility of applying symmetric solutions of micro-fluid flows in other geometries such as variable-area ducts. Molecular flows are solved for the whole domain with and without the symmetric boundary condition. Good agreement has been reached between the results of the symmetric solution and the whole domain solution. To investigate robustness of the proposed method, simulations are conducted for different values of affecting parameters including an external force, a flow density, and a domain length. The results indicate that the symmetric solution is also applicable to variable-area ducts such as micro-nozzles.

This paper aims to examine variable viscosity effects on peristalsis of Sisko fluids in a curved channel with compliant characteristics. Viscous dissipation in a heat transfer is studied. The resulting problems are solved using perturbation and numerical schemes to show qualitatively similar responses for velocity and temperature. A streamline phenomenon is also considered.

Wetting phenomena are widespread in nature and industrial applications. In general, systems concerning wetting phenomena are typical multicomponent/multiphase complex fluid systems. Simulating the behavior of such systems is important to both scientific research and practical applications. It is challenging due to the complexity of the phenomena and difficulties in choosing an appropriate numerical method. To provide some detailed guidelines for selecting a suitable multiphase lattice Boltzmann model, two kinds of lattice Boltzmann multiphase models, the modified S-C model and the H-C-Z model, are used in this paper to investigate the static contact angle on solid surfaces with different wettability combined with the geometric formulation (Ding, H. and Spelt, P. D. M. Wetting condition in diffuse interface simulations of contact line motion. Physical Review E, 75(4), 046708 (2007)). The specific characteristics and computational performance of these two lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) multiphase models are analyzed including relationship between surface tension and the control parameters, the achievable range of the static contact angle, the maximum magnitude of the spurious currents (MMSC), and most importantly, the convergence rate of the two models on simulating the static contact angle. The results show that a wide range of static contact angles from wetting to non-wetting can be realized for both models. MMSC mainly depends on the surface tension. With the numerical parameters used in this work, the maximum magnitudes of the spurious currents of the two models are on the same order of magnitude. MMSC of the S-C model is universally larger than that of the H-C-Z model. The convergence rate of the S-C model is much faster than that of the H-C-Z model. The major foci in this work are the frequently-omitted important details in simulating wetting phenomena. Thus, the major findings in this work can provide suggestions for simulating wetting phenomena with LBM multiphase models along with the geometric formulation.

This paper is concerned with a buckling analysis of an embedded nanoplate integrated with magnetoelectroelastic (MEE) layers based on a nonlocal magnetoelectroelasticity theory. A surrounding elastic medium is simulated by the Pasternak foundation that considers both shear and normal loads. The sandwich nanoplate (SNP) consists of a core that is made of metal and two MEE layers on the upper and lower surfaces of the core made of BaTiO3/CoFe2O4. The refined zigzag theory (RZT) is used to model the SNP subject to both external electric and magnetic potentials. Using an energy method and Hamilton's principle, the governing motion equations are obtained, and then solved analytically. A detailed parametric study is conducted, concentrating on the combined effects of the small scale parameter, external electric and magnetic loads, thicknesses of MEE layers, mode numbers, and surrounding elastic medium. It is concluded that increasing the small scale parameter decreases the critical buckling loads.

The time-dependent electro-viscoelastic performance of a circular dielectric elastomer (DE) membrane actuator containing an inclusion is investigated in the context of the nonlinear theory for viscoelastic dielectrics. The membrane, a key part of the actuator, is centrally attached to a rigid inclusion of the radius a, and then connected to a fixed rigid ring of the radius b. When subject to a pressure and a voltage, the membrane inflates into an out-of-plane shape and undergoes an inhomogeneous large deformation. The governing equations for the large deformation are derived by means of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, and viscoelasticity of the membrane is characterized by a rheological spring-dashpot model. In the simulation, effects of the pressure, the voltage, and design parameters on the electromechanical viscoelastic behaviors of the membrane are investigated. Evolutions of the considered variables and profiles of the deformed membrane are obtained numerically and illustrated graphically. The results show that electromechanical loadings and design parameters significantly influence the electro-viscoelastic behaviors of the membrane. The design parameters can be tailored to improve the performance of the membrane. The approach may provide guidelines in designing and optimizing such DE devices.

By means of a comprehensive theory of elasticity, namely, a nonlocal strain gradient continuum theory, size-dependent nonlinear axial instability characteristics of cylindrical nanoshells made of functionally graded material (FGM) are examined. To take small scale effects into consideration in a more accurate way, a nonlocal stress field parameter and an internal length scale parameter are incorporated simultaneously into an exponential shear deformation shell theory. The variation of material properties associated with FGM nanoshells is supposed along the shell thickness, and it is modeled based on the Mori-Tanaka homogenization scheme. With a boundary layer theory of shell buckling and a perturbation-based solving process, the nonlocal strain gradient load-deflection and load-shortening stability paths are derived explicitly. It is observed that the strain gradient size effect causes to the increases of both the critical axial buckling load and the width of snap-through phenomenon related to the postbuckling regime, while the nonlocal size dependency leads to the decreases of them. Moreover, the influence of the nonlocal type of small scale effect on the axial instability characteristics of FGM nanoshells is more than that of the strain gradient one.

A polymeric gel is an aggregate of polymers and solvent molecules, which can retain its shape after a large deformation. The deformation behavior of polymeric gels was often described based on the Flory-Rehner free energy function without considering the influence of chain entanglements on the mechanical behavior of gels. In this paper, a new hybrid free energy function for gels is formulated by combining the EdwardsVilgis slip-link model and the Flory-Huggins mixing model to quantify the time-dependent concurrent process of large deformation and mass transport. The finite element method is developed to analyze examples of swelling-induced deformation. Simulation results are compared with available experimental data and show good agreement. The influence of entanglements on the time-dependent deformation behavior of gels is also demonstrated. The study of large deformation kinetics of polymeric gel is useful for diverse applications.

Complex modes and traveling waves in axially moving Timoshenko beams are studied. Due to the axially moving velocity, complex modes emerge instead of real value modes. Correspondingly, traveling waves are present for the axially moving material while standing waves dominate in the traditional static structures. The analytical results obtained in this study are verified with a numerical differential quadrature method.