The effect of internal heating source on the film momentum and thermal transport characteristic of thin finite power-law liquids over an accelerating unsteady horizontal stretched interface is studied. Unlike most classical works in this field, a general surface temperature distribution of the liquid film and the generalized Fourier's law for varying thermal conductivity are taken into consideration. Appropriate similarity transformations are used to convert the strongly nonlinear governing partial differential equations (PDEs) into a boundary value problem with a group of two-point ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The correspondence between the liquid film thickness and the unsteadiness parameter is derived with the BVP4C program in MATLAB. Numerical solutions to the self-similarity ODEs are obtained using the shooting technique combined with a Runge-Kutta iteration program and Newton's scheme. The effects of the involved physical parameters on the fluid's horizontal velocity and temperature distribution are presented and discussed.

The capillary interactions, including the capillary force and capillary suction, between two unequal-sized particles with a fixed liquid volume are investigated. The capillary interaction model is used within the Young-Laplace framework. With the profile of the meridian of the liquid bridge, the capillary suction, and the liquid volume as state variables, the governing equations with two-fixed-point boundary are first derived using a variable substitution technique, in which the gravity effects are neglected. The capillary suction and geometry of the liquid bridge with a fixed volume are solved with a shooting method. In modeling the capillary force, the Gorge method is applied. The effects of various parameters including the distance between two particles, the ratio of particle radii, and the liquid-solid contact angles are discussed.

Based on the Zufiria theoretical model, a new model regarding the asymptotic bubble velocity for the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is presented by use of the complex velocity potential proposed by Sohn. The proposed model is an extension of the ordinary Zufiria model and can deal with non-ideal fluids. With the control variable method, the effect of the viscosity and surface tension on the bubble growth rate of the RT instability is studied. The result is consistent with Cao's result if we only consider the viscous effect and with Xia's result if we only consider the surface tension effect. The asymptotic bubble velocity predicted by the Zufiria model is smaller than that predicted by the Layzer model, and the result from the Zufiria model is much closer to White's experimental data.

The possible application of the film-cooling technique against aero-thermal heating for surfaces of high-speed flying vehicles is discussed. The technique has been widely used in the heat protection of gas turbine blades. It is shown in this paper that, by applying this technique to high-speed flying vehicles, the working principle is fundamentally different. Numerical simulations for two model problems are performed to support the argument. Besides the heat protection, the appreciable drag reduction is found to be another favorable effect. For the second model problem, i.e., the gas cooling for an optical window on a sphere cone, the hydrodynamic instability of the film is studied by the linear stability analysis to observe possible occurrence of laminar-turbulent transition.

The targeted drug delivery and targeted drug therapy transport a drug directly to the center of the disease under various conditions and thereby treat it deliberately without effects on the body. This paper studies the magnetic drug targeting (MDT) technique by particle tracking in the presence of magnetic field in bifurcation vessels of a healthy person and a diabetes patient. The Lagrangian particle tracking is performed to estimate particle behavior under effects of imposed magnetic field gradients along the bifurcation. The results show that the magnetic field increases the volume fraction of particle in the target region, and the efficiency of MDT on a patient with the diabetes disease is better than a healthy person. Also, for the higher magnetic numbers, the flow in the upper branch is strongly affected by the magnetic field.

The dynamic stability of axially accelerating plates is investigated. Longitudinally varying tensions due to the acceleration and nonhomogeneous boundary conditions are highlighted. A model of the plate combined with viscoelasticity is applied. In the viscoelastic constitutive relationship, the material derivative is used to take the place of the partial time derivative. Analytical and numerical methods are used to investigate summation and principal parametric resonances, respectively. By use of linear models for the transverse behavior in the small displacement regime, the plate is confined by a viscous damping force. The generalized Hamilton principle is used to derive the governing equations, the initial conditions, and the boundary conditions of the coupled planar vibration. The solvability conditions are established by directly using the method of multiple scales. The Routh-Hurwitz criterion is used to obtain the necessary and sufficient condition of the stability. Numerical examples are given to show the effects of related parameters on the stability boundaries. The validity of longitudinally varying tensions and nonhomogeneous boundary conditions is highlighted by comparing the results of the method of multiple scales with those of a differential quadrature scheme.

This article is concerned with finite element implementations of the threedimensional geometrically exact rod. The special attention is paid to identifying the condition that ensures the frame invariance of the resulting discrete approximations. From the perspective of symmetry, this requirement is equivalent to the commutativity of the employed interpolation operator I with the action of the special Euclidean group SE(3), or I is SE(3)-equivariant. This geometric criterion helps to clarify several subtle issues about the interpolation of finite rotation. It leads us to reexamine the finite element formulation first proposed by Simo in his work on energy-momentum conserving algorithms. That formulation is often mistakenly regarded as non-objective. However, we show that the obtained approximation is invariant under the superposed rigid body motions, and as a corollary, the objectivity of the continuum model is preserved. The key of this proof comes from the observation that since the numerical quadrature is used to compute the integrals, by storing the rotation field and its derivative at the Gauss points, the equivariant conditions can be relaxed only at these points. Several numerical examples are presented to confirm the theoretical results and demonstrate the performance of this algorithm.

In this paper, a new semi-analytical and semi-engineering method of the closed form solution of stress intensity factors (SIFs) of cracks emanating from a surface semi-spherical cavity in a finite body is derived using the energy release rate theory. A mode of crack opening displacements of a normal slice is established, and the normal slice relevant functions are introduced. The proposed method is both effective and accurate for the problem of three-dimensional cracks emanating from a surface cavity. A series of useful results of SIFs are obtained.

In this paper, we present a strong-form framework for solving the boundary value problems with geometric nonlinearity, in which an incremental theory is developed for the problem based on the Newton-Raphson scheme. Conventionally, the finite element methods (FEMs) or weak-form based meshfree methods have often been adopted to solve geometric nonlinear problems. However, issues, such as the mesh dependency, the numerical integration, and the boundary imposition, make these approaches computationally inefficient. Recently, strong-form collocation methods have been called on to solve the boundary value problems. The feasibility of the collocation method with the nodal discretization such as the radial basis collocation method (RBCM) motivates the present study. Due to the limited application to the nonlinear analysis in a strong form, we formulate the equation of equilibrium, along with the boundary conditions, in an incremental-iterative sense using the RBCM. The efficacy of the proposed framework is numerically demonstrated with the solution of two benchmark problems involving the geometric nonlinearity. Compared with the conventional weak-form formulation, the proposed framework is advantageous as no quadrature rule is needed in constructing the governing equation, and no mesh limitation exists with the deformed geometry in the incremental-iterative process.

A model of two oscillating pendula placed on a mobile support is studied. Once an overall scheme of equations, under general assumptions, is formulated via the Lagrangian equations of motion, the specific case of absence of escapement is examined. The mechanical model consists of two coupled pendula both oscillating on a moving board attached to a spring. The final result performs selection among the peculiar parameters of the physical process (the length, the ratio of masses, the friction and damping coefficients, and the stiffness of the spring), providing a tendency to synchronization.