Tensegrities are a class of lightweight and reticulated structures consisting of stressed strings and bars. It is shown that each prismatic tensegrity can have two self-equilibrated and stable states, leading to a snapping instability behavior under an applied torque. The predicted mechanism is experimentally validated, and can be used in areas such as advanced sensors and actuators, energy storage/adsorption equipments, and folding/unfolding devices.
A non-local solution for a functionally graded piezoelectric nano-rod is presented by accounting the surface effect. This solution is used to evaluate the characteristics of the wave propagation in the rod structure. The model is loaded under a two-dimensional (2D) electric potential and an initially applied voltage at the top of the rod. The mechanical and electrical properties are assumed to be variable along the thickness direction of the rod according to the power law. The Hamilton principle is used to derive the governing differential equations of the electromechanical system. The effects of some important parameters such as the applied voltage and gradation of the material properties on the wave characteristics of the rod are studied.
The pull-in instability of a cantilever nano-actuator model incorporating the effects of the surface, the fringing field, and the Casimir attraction force is investigated. A new quartic polynomial is proposed as the shape function of the beam during the deflection, satisfying all of the four boundary values. The Gaussian quadrature rule is used to treat the involved integrations, and the design parameters are preserved in the evaluated formulas. The analytic expressions are derived for the tip deflection and pull-in parameters of the cantilever beam. The micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) cantilever actuators and freestanding nano-actuators are considered as two special cases. It is proved that the proposed method is convenient for the analyses of the effects of the surface, the Casimir force, and the fringing field on the pull-in parameters.
The steady flow and heat transfer of a couple stress fluid due to an inclined stretching cylinder are analyzed. The thermal conductivity is assumed to be temperature dependent. The governing equations for the flow and heat transfer are transformed into ordinary differential equations. Series solutions of the resulting problem are computed. The effects of various interested parameters, e.g., the couple stress parameter, the angle of inclination, the mixed convection parameter, the Prandtl number, the Reynolds number, the radiation parameter, and the variable thermal conductivity parameter, are illustrated. The skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are computed and analyzed. It is observed that the heat transfer rate at the surface increases while the velocity and the shear stress decrease when the couple stress parameter and the Reynolds number increase. The temperature increases when the Reynolds number increases.
The evolution of two spanwise-aligned low-speed streaks in a wall turbulent flow, triggered by the instability of the subharmonic varicose (SV) mode, is studied by a direct numerical simulation (DNS) method in a small spatial-periodic channel. The results show that the SV low-speed streaks are self-sustained at the early stage, and then transform into subharmonic sinuous (SS) low-speed streaks. Initially, the streamwise vortex sheets are formed by shearing, and then evolve into zigzag vortex sheets due to the mutual induction. As the intensification of the SV low-speed streaks becomes prominent, the tilted streamwise vortex tubes and the V -like streamwise vortex tubes can be formed simultaneously by increasing +?u/?x . When the SV low-speed streaks break down, new zigzag streamwise vortices will be generated, thus giving birth to the next sustaining cycle of the SV low-speed streaks. When the second breakdown happens, new secondary V -like streamwise vortices instead of zigzag streamwise vortices will be generated. Because of the sweep motion of the fluid induced by the secondary V -like streamwise vortices, each decayed low-speed streak can be divided into two parts, and each part combines with the part of another streak, finally leading to the formation of SS low-speed streaks.
An idealized parallel flow caused by a lateral bed roughness difference due to the partial vegetation across a channel is investigated. Similar to the flow in a compound channel, there are mixing layers adjacent to the interface between the vegetation and the non-vegetation lanes, and a lateral momentum exchange occurs between the slow-moving water in the former lane and the fast-moving water in the latter lane. Under a uniform flow condition, the three-dimensional (3D) instantaneous velocities of two cases with different discharges and water depths are measured with a 16MHz acoustic Doppler velocimeter (micro ADV). The longitudinal variation of the streamwise velocity and the vertical variation of the Reynolds stress are analyzed. A quadrant analysis is carried out to investigate the outward and inward interaction, ejection, and sweep phenomenon caused by the vegetation variation across the channel. The results show that the flow characteristics in the vegetation lane are similar to those in an open channel fully covered with submerged vegetation, and the flow characteristics in the smooth non-vegetation lane are similar to those in a free open channel. For the cases studied here, the width of the mixing region is about 10% of the channel width, and the mixing region is mainly on the non-vegetation half.
The boundary-layer receptivity under the interaction of free-stream turbu-lence (FST) and localized wall roughness is studied by the direct numerical simulation (DNS) and the fast Fourier transform. The results show that the Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) wave packets superposed by a group of stability, neutral, and instability T-S waves are generated in the boundary layer. The propagation speeds of the T-S wave packets are calculated. The relation among the boundary-layer receptivity response, the amplitude of the FST, the roughness height, and the roughness width is determined. The results agree well with Dietz's experiments. The effect of the roughness geometries on the receptivity is also studied.
The exact solutions for the viscous fluid through a porous slit with linear ab-sorption are obtained. The Stokes equation with non-homogeneous boundary conditions is solved to get the expressions for the velocity components, pressure distribution, wall shear stress, fractional absorption, and leakage flux. The volume flow rate and mean flow rate are found to be useful in obtaining a convenient form of the longitudinal velocity component and pressure difference. The points of the maximum velocity components for a fixed axial distance are identified. The value of the linear absorption parameter is ran-domly chosen, and the rest available data of the rat kidney to the tabulate pressure drop and fractional absorption are incorporated. The effects of the linear absorption, uniform absorption, and flow rate parameters on the flow properties are discussed by graphs. It is found that forward flow occurs only if the volume flux per unit width is greater than the absorption velocity throughout the length of the slit, otherwise back flow may occur. The leakage flux increases with the increase in the linear absorption parameter. Streamlines are drawn to help the analysis of the flow behaviors during the absorption of the fluid flow through the renal tubule and purification of blood through an artificial kidney.
This paper reports the new progresses in the axiomatization of tensor anal-ysis, including the thought of axiomatization, the concept of generalized components, the axiom of covariant form invariability, the axiomatized definition, the algebraic structure, the transformation group, and the simple calculation of generalized covariant differentia-tions. These progresses strengthen the tendency of the axiomatization of tensor analysis.
The information stored in working memory can be transformed into the system of long-term memory due to the long-term potential (LTP) mechanism. The θ-burst stimulation (TBS) can be used as an LTP induction protocol in some experiments, but it has not been used in the models related to memory. In this work, an improved Camperi-Wang (C-W) model with the Ca2+ subsystem-induced bistability is adopted, and the TBS is simulated to be the initial stimuli of this model. With the evolution of the effects of the stimuli properties such as the cycle, the amplitude, and the duty ration on the memory mechanism of this model, the TBS can be adopted to activate working memory models and produce long-term memory. The study helps to propose the relationship between working memory and long-term memory, which lays a theoretical basis for the study of the neural mechanism of long-term memory.
An implicit finite difference method is developed for a one-dimensional frac-tional percolation equation (FPE) with the Dirichlet and fractional boundary conditions. The stability and convergence are discussed for two special cases, i.e., a continued seep-age flow with a monotone percolation coefficient and a seepage flow with the fractional Neumann boundary condition. The accuracy and efficiency of the method are checked with two numerical examples.