The internal stress field of an inhomogeneous or homogeneous inclusion in an infinite elastic plane under uniform stress-free eigenstrains is studied. The study is restricted to the inclusion shapes defined by the polynomial mapping functions mapping the exterior of the inclusion onto the exterior of a unit circle. The inclusion shapes, giving a polynomial internal stress field, are determined for three types of inclusions, i.e., an inhomogeneous inclusion with an elastic modulus different from the surrounding matrix, an inhomogeneous inclusion with the same shear modulus but a different Poisson's ratio from the surrounding matrix, and a homogeneous inclusion with the same elastic modulus as the surrounding matrix. Examples are presented, and several specific conclusions are achieved for the relation between the degree of the polynomial internal stress field and the degree of the mapping function defining the inclusion shape.
The buckling and large deflection behaviors of axis-symmetric radially functionally graded (RFG) ring-stiffened circular plates are investigated by the dynamic relaxation (DR) method combined with the finite difference discretization technique. The material properties of the constituent components of the RFG plate are assumed to vary continuously according to the Mori-Tanaka distribution along the radial direction. The nonlinear governing equations are obtained in the incremental form based on the firstorder shear deformation plate theory (FSDT) and the von Karman relations for large deflection. In the buckling analysis, an external in-plane load is applied to the plate incrementally so that, in each load-step, the incremental form of the governing equations can be solved by a numerical code prepared based on the DR method. After converging the DR code in the first increment, the latter load-step is added to the previous one, and the program is repeated again. The critical buckling load is determined from the compressive load-displacement curve obtained by solving the incremental form of the governing equations. Based on the present incremental form of formulation, a bending analysis can also be conducted if the whole load is applied simultaneously. Finally, a detailed parametric study is carried out to investigate the influences of various boundary conditions, grading indices, thickness-to-radius ratios, stiffener's positions and depths on the critical buckling load, and displacements and stresses resulted from the bending analysis. It is observed that the effect of the stiffener on the results is much greater in the functionally graded plate with higher material grading indices. The results also reveal that, by increasing the depth of the stiffer, the values of ascending the critical buckling load are approximately identical for both simply supported and clamped boundary conditions.
A global interpolating meshless shape function based on the generalized moving least-square (GMLS) is formulated by the transformation technique. Both the shape function and its derivatives meet the Kronecker delta function property. With the interpolating GMLS (IGMLS) shape function, an improved element-free Galerkin (EFG) method is proposed for the structural dynamic analysis. Compared with the conventional EFG method, the obvious advantage of the proposed method is that the essential boundary conditions including both displacements and derivatives can be imposed by the straightforward way. Meanwhile, it can greatly improve the ill-condition feature of the standard GMLS approximation, and provide good accuracy at low cost. The dynamic analyses of the Euler beam and Kirchhoff plate are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the improved method. The comparison between the numerical results of the conventional method and the improved method shows that the proposed method has better stability, higher accuracy, and less time consumption.
The fracture behaviors near the mode Ⅱ interface crack tip for orthotropic bimaterial are studied. The non-oscillatory field, where the stress singularity exponent is a real number, is discussed by the complex function method and the undetermined coefficient method. From the research fracture problems, the stress functions with ten undetermined coefficients and an unknown singularity exponent are introduced when △1 > 0 and △2 > 0. By the existence theorem of non-trival solutions for the system of eight homogeneous linear equations, the characteristic equation, the stress singularity exponent, and the discriminating condition of the non-oscillatory singularity are found. By the uniqueness theorem of the solutions for the system of twelve non-homogeneous linear equations with ten unknowns, the ten undermined coefficients in the stress functions are uniquely determined. The definitions of the stress intensity factors are given with the help of one-sided limit, and their theoretical formulae are deduced. The analytic solutions of the stresses near the mode Ⅱ interface crack tip are derived. The classical results for orthotropic material are obtained.
The hydrate formation or dissociation in deep subsea flow lines is a challenging problem in oil and gas transport systems. The study of multiphase flows is complex while necessary due to the phase changes (i.e., liquid, solid, and gas) that occur with increasing the temperature and decreasing the pressure. A one-dimensional multiphase flow model coupled with a transient hydrate kinetic model is developed to study the characteristics of the multiphase flows for the hydrates formed by the phase changes in the pipes. The multiphase flow model is derived from a multi-fluid model, while has been widely used in modelling multiphase flows. The heat convection between the fluid and the ambient through the pipe wall is considered in the energy balance equation. The developed multiphase flow model is used to simulate the procedure of the hydrate transport. The results show that the formation of the hydrates can cause hold-up oscillations of water and gas.
The transient growth due to non-normality is investigated for the PoiseuilleRayleigh-Bénard problem of binary fluids with the Soret effect. For negative separation factors such as ψ=-0.1, it is found that a large transient growth can be obtained by the non-normal interaction of the two least-stable-modes, i.e., the upstream and downstream modes, which determine the linear critical boundary curves for small Reynolds numbers. The transient growth is so strong that the optimal energy amplification factor G(t) is up to 102~103. While for positive separation factors such as ψ=0.1, the transient growth is weak with the order O(1) of the amplification factor, which can even be computed by the least-stable-mode. However, for both cases, the least-stable-mode can govern the long-term behavior of the amplification factor for large time. The results also show that large Reynolds numbers have stabilization effects for the maximum amplification within moderate wave number regions. Meanwhile, much small negative or large positive separation factors and large Rayleigh numbers can enlarge the maximum transient growth of the pure streamwise disturbance with the wavenumber α=3.14. Moreover, the initial and evolutionary two-dimensional spatial patterns of the large transient growth for the pure streamwise disturbance are exhibited with a plot of the velocity vector, spanwise vorticity, temperature, and concentration field. The initial three-layer cell vorticity structure is revealed. When the amplification factor reaches the maximum Gmax, it develops into one cell structure with large amplification for the vorticity strength.
The instability of the Mack mode is destabilized by wall-cooling in a high speed boundary layer. The aim of this paper is to study the mechanism of the wallcooling effect on the Mack mode instability by numerical methods. It is shown that the wall-cooling can destabilize the Mack mode instability, similar to the previous conclusions with the exception that the Mack mode instability can be stabilized by wall-cooling if the wall temperature is extremely low. The reversed wall temperature is related to a freestream condition. If the Mach number increases to a large enough value, e.g., about 7, the reversed wall temperature will tend to be zero. It seems that the Mack mode instability is determined by the region between the boundary layer edge and the critical layer. When the wall temperature decreases, this region becomes wider, and the boundary layer becomes more unstable. Additionally, a relative supersonic unstable mode can be observed when the velocity of the critical layer is less than 1-1/Ma or is cancelled by the wall-cooling effect. These results provide a deeper understanding on the wall-cooling effect in high speed boundary layers.
Detonation instability is a fundamental problem for understanding the microbehavior of a detonation front. With the theoretical approach of shock dynamics, detonation instability can be mathematically described as a second-order ordinary difference equation. A one-dimensional detonation wave can be modelled as a type of oscillators. There are two different physical mechanisms controlling the behaviors of a detonation. If the shock Mach number is smaller than the equilibrium Mach number, the fluid will reach the sonic speed before the end of the chemical reaction. Then, thermal chock occurs, and the leading shock becomes stronger. If the shock Mach number is larger than the equilibrium Mach number, the fluid will be subsonic at the end of the chemical reaction. Then, the downstream rarefaction waves propagate upstream, and weaken the leading shock. The above two mechanisms are the basic recovery forces toward the equilibrium state for detonation sustenance and propagation. The detonation oscillator concept is helpful for understanding the oscillating and periodic behaviors of detonation waves. The shock dynamics theory of detonation instability gives a description of the feedback regime of the chemical reaction, which causes variations of the leading shock of the detonation.
A variety of border collision bifurcations in a three-dimensional (3D) piecewise smooth chaotic electrical circuit are investigated. The existence and stability of the equilibrium points are analyzed. It is found that there are two kinds of non-smooth fold bifurcations. The existence of periodic orbits is also proved to show the occurrence of non-smooth Hopf bifurcations. As a composite of non-smooth fold and Hopf bifurcations, the multiple crossing bifurcation is studied by the generalized Jacobian matrix. Some interesting phenomena which cannot occur in smooth bifurcations are also considered.
A reduced model is proposed and analyzed for the simulation of vortexinduced vibrations (VIVs) for turbine blades. A rotating blade is modelled as a uniform cantilever beam, while a van der Pol oscillator is used to represent the time-varying characteristics of the vortex shedding, which interacts with the equations of motion for the blade to simulate the fluid-structure interaction. The action for the structural motion on the fluid is considered as a linear inertia coupling. The nonlinear characteristics for the dynamic responses are investigated with the multiple scale method, and the modulation equations are derived. The transition set consisting of the bifurcation set and the hysteresis set is constructed by the singularity theory and the effects of the system parameters, such as the van der Pol damping. The coupling parameter on the equilibrium solutions is analyzed. The frequency-response curves are obtained, and the stabilities are determined by the Routh-Hurwitz criterion. The phenomena including the saddle-node and Hopf bifurcations are found to occur under certain parameter values. A direct numerical method is used to analyze the dynamic characteristics for the original system and verify the validity of the multiple scale method. The results indicate that the new coupled model is useful in explaining the rich dynamic response characteristics such as possible bifurcation phenomena in the VIVs.