A flow control technique by local vibration is proposed to improve the aerodynamic performance of a typical airfoil NACA 0012. Both wind-tunnel experiments and a large eddy simulation (LES) are carried out to study the effects of local vibration on drag reduction over a wide range of angles of attack. The application parameters of local vibration on the upper surface of the airfoil are first evaluated by numerical simulations. The mounted position is chosen at 0.065-0.09 of chord length from the leading edge. The influence of oscillation frequency is investigated both by numerical simulations and experiments. The optimal frequencies are near the dominant frequencies of shear layer vortices and wake vortices. The patterns of shear vortices caused by local vibration are also studied to determine the drag reduction mechanism of this flow control method. The results indicate that local vibration can improve the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil. In particular, it can reduce the drag by changing the vortex generation patterns.
Despite the intensive studies on neurons, the control mechanism in real interactions of neurons is still unclear. This paper presents an understanding of this kind of control mechanism, controlling a neuron by stimulating another coupled neuron, with the uncertainties taken into consideration for both neurons. Two observers and a differentiator, which comprise the first-order low-pass filters, are first designed for estimating the uncertainties. Then, with the estimated values combined, a robust nonlinear controller with a saturation function is presented to track the desired membrane potential. Finally, two typical bursters of neurons with the desired membrane potentials are proposed in the simulation, and the numerical results show that they are tracked very well by the proposed controller.
The time delay-induced instability in an Internet congestion control model is investigated. The star topology is considered, and the link bandwidth ratio and the control gain are selected as the tunable parameters for congestion suppression. The stability switch boundary is obtained by the eigenvalue analysis for the linearized system around the equilibrium. To investigate the oscillatory congestion when the equilibrium becomes unstable, the center manifold reduction and the normal form theory are used to study the periodic oscillation induced by the delay. The theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show that the ratio between bandwidths of the trunk link and the regular link, rather than these bandwidths themselves, is crucial for the stability of the congestion control system. The present results demonstrate that it is not always effective to increase the link bandwidth ratio for stabilizing the system, and for some certain delays, adjusting the control gain is more efficient.
This paper proposes a novel unified visco-plastic constitutive model for uniaxial ratcheting behaviors. The cyclic deformation of the material presents remarkable time-dependence and history memory phenomena. The fractional (fractional-order) derivative is an efficient tool for modeling these phenomena. Therefore, we develop a cyclic fractional-order unified visco-plastic (FVP) constitutive model. Specifically, within the framework of the cyclic elasto-plastic theory, the fractional derivative is used to describe the accumulated plastic strain rate and nonlinear kinematic hardening rule based on the Ohno-Abdel-Karim model. Moreover, a new radial return method for the back stress is developed to describe the unclosed hysteresis loops of the stress-strain properly. The capacity of the FVP model used to predict the cyclic deformation of the SS304 stainless steel is verified through a comparison with the corresponding experimental data found in the literature (KANG, G. Z., KAN, Q. H., ZHANG, J., and SUN, Y. F. Timedependent ratcheting experiments of SS304 stainless steel. International Journal of Plasticity, 22(5), 858-894 (2006)). The FVP model is shown to be successful in predicting the rate-dependent ratcheting behaviors of the SS304 stainless steel.
A novel method based on time-dependent stochastic orthogonal bases for stochastic response surface approximation is proposed to overcome the problem of significant errors in the utilization of the generalized polynomial chaos (GPC) method that approximates the stochastic response by orthogonal polynomials. The accuracy and effectiveness of the method are illustrated by different numerical examples including both linear and nonlinear problems. The results indicate that the proposed method modifies the stochastic bases adaptively, and has a better approximation for the probability density function in contrast to the GPC method.
The asymptotic development method is applied to analyze the free vibration of non-uniform axially functionally graded (AFG) beams, of which the governing equations are differential equations with variable coefficients. By decomposing the variable flexural stiffness and mass per unit length into reference invariant and variant parts, the perturbation theory is introduced to obtain an approximate analytical formula of the natural frequencies of the non-uniform AFG beams with different boundary conditions. Furthermore, assuming polynomial distributions of Young's modulus and the mass density, the numerical results of the AFG beams with various taper ratios are obtained and compared with the published literature results. The discussion results illustrate that the proposed method yields an effective estimate of the first three order natural frequencies for the AFG tapered beams. However, the errors increase with the increase in the mode orders especially for the cases with variable heights. In brief, the asymptotic development method is verified to be simple and efficient to analytically study the free vibration of non-uniform AFG beams, and it could be used to analyze any tapered beams with an arbitrary varying cross width.
As a typical non-smooth bifurcation, grazing bifurcation can induce instability of elementary near-grazing impact periodic motion in impact oscillators. In this paper, the stability for near-grazing period-one impact motion to suppress grazing-induced instabilities is analyzed, based on which, a control strategy is proposed. The commonly-used leading order zero time discontinuity mapping is extended to a higher order one to aid the perturbation analysis of the characteristic equation. It is shown that the degenerate grazing bifurcation can eliminate the singular term in the characteristic equation, leading to bounded eigenvalues. Based on such a precondition, the bounded eigenvalues are further restricted inside the unit circle, and a continuous transition between non-impact and controlled impact motion is observed. One discrete feedback controller that changes the velocity of the oscillator based on the selected Poincaré sections is adopted to demonstrate the control procedure.
Multibody system dynamics provides a strong tool for the estimation of dynamic performances and the optimization of multisystem robot design. It can be described with differential algebraic equations (DAEs). In this paper, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is introduced to solve and control a symplectic multibody system for the first time. It is first combined with the symplectic method to solve problems in uncontrolled and controlled robotic arm systems. It is shown that the results conserve the energy and keep the constraints of the chaotic motion, which demonstrates the efficiency, accuracy, and time-saving ability of the method. To make the system move along the pre-planned path, which is a functional extremum problem, a double-PSO-based instantaneous optimal control is introduced. Examples are performed to test the effectiveness of the double-PSO-based instantaneous optimal control. The results show that the method has high accuracy, a fast convergence speed, and a wide range of applications. All the above verify the immense potential applications of the PSO method in multibody system dynamics.
Similar to the capillary phenomenon of liquid, granular particles can move up to a certain height along a vertically vibrating tube. The certain height, which is called the equilibrium height, is related to some parameters, e.g., the inner diameter of the tube, the amplitude, and the vibration frequency. In this paper, a theoretical model is proposed to explain the physical origin of the capillary phenomenon and the effects of the inner diameter of the tube, the amplitude, and the vibration frequency on the equilibrium height. In this model, the volumes of the inflowing and outflowing particles in a vibration period are calculated, which can significantly broaden our understanding in the flow of particles in the bottom of the tube. In order to prove the assumption of this physical model that the particles in the bottom of the tube move in the form of sine, several experiments are conducted. The granular climbing heights at different granular positions and different time stages are measured. The results show that granules move in the form of sine, which almost coincides with the motion of the tube. Moreover, motivated by the sampling on the asteroid regolith based on this mechanism, the sampling efficiencies for various vibration amplitudes and frequencies are discussed based on the new proposed model. It is found that there is an optimum frequency at which sampling is the most effective.
A nonlinear dynamic model of a one-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavity resonator is presented. It considers the internal tensile stress and the geometric characteristics of a photonic crystal with rectangular (and circular) holes. The solution of the dynamic model shows that the internal tensile stress can suppress the hardening and softening behaviors of the resonator. However, the stress can reduce the amplitude, which is not conducive to an improvement of the sensitivity of the sensor. It is demonstrated that with an optimized beam length, the normalized frequency drift of the beam can be stabilized within 1% when the optical power increases from 2 mW to 6 mW. When the hole size of the resonator beam is close to the beam width, its increase can lead to a sharp rise of the resonant frequency and the promotion of hardening behavior. Moreover, the increase in the optical power initially leads to the softening behavior of the resonator followed by an intensification of the hardening behavior. These theoretical and numerical results are helpful in understanding the intrinsic mechanism of the nonlinear response of an optomechanical resonator, with the objective of avoiding the nonlinear phenomena by optimizing key parameters.
Dry drilling only with the assistance of an auger is a reliable and realistic approach to remove abundant soils from the side of a bit in the harsh, dry conditions on the Moon. Based on an elementary analysis, using Janssen's model to reflect the coupling effect among the different components of the stress, the present paper models the conveying dynamics along the helical groove and the sampling mechanism in the centering hole of the stem for an auger drilling into lunar soil simulant. Combining the two parts as well as a simple cutting model for the bit, a whole drilling model is established to investigate the complicated relation among the conveying ability of the auger, the coring rate, and drilling parameters such as the penetration and rotation speeds. The relation is revealed by the complicated transition between different sub-models with the help of the physical transition conditions. A series of experiments with constant penetration and rotation speeds are conducted to verify the model. Three aspects of characteristics of the drilling dynamics are manifested, (i) the loads on the bit are almost independent of penetration; (ii) three obvious drilling stages with respect to cut per revolution are grouped; (iii) a linear relationship is found between the coring rate and the revolution per penetration.
A modified snap-through mechanism is used in an electromagnetic energy harvester to improve its effectiveness. It mainly comprises three springs that are configured so that the potential energy of the system has two stable equilibrium points. In particular, the small vibration behavior of the harvester around one of the equilibriums is of interest. A multi-scale method (MSM) is used to analyze the frequency response curve. Two snap-through mechanisms are considered. One has both horizontal and vertical springs. The other has only horizontal springs. The frequency response curves of these two classes are compared under the same excitation and electric loading conditions. The latter exhibits more bending of the frequency response curve than the former one. The results are also validated by some numerical work. The averaged power subject to the Gaussian white noise is calculated numerically, and the results demonstrate that bi-stable energy harvesting with only horizontal springs can outperform the mechanism with both horizontal and vertical springs for the same distance between two equilibriums.